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Bibcode : BAMS December Australian Meteorological Magazine. Bureau of Meteorology. Phillips April Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. Cox September Weather and Forecasting. Bibcode : WtFor Model output statistics forecast guidance.

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Retrieved 3 January Fennessey 20 March Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGR Archived from the original PDF on 10 July Retrieved 6 January National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved 2 January This enhanced vertical transport, particularly of latent heat, is directly reflected in the enhanced clouds and rainfall associated with the landscape heterogeneity.

It has been suggested that these increased vertical fluxes, i. Such a parameterization, which would allow us to capture a fuller and more realistic range of land—atmosphere interactions than has so far been possible, has yet to be implemented into any GCM, and the development, implementation, and testing of a viable scheme is currently an important challenge facing climate modelers.

Preliminary parameterizations and their underlying methodology are described by Avissar and Chen [] , Lynn et al.

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As emphasized in these studies, because of limitations in our ability to observe all the relevant mesoscale dynamics at appropriate time and space resolutions over large areas, these and related investigations necessarily depend on numerical models. For this reason, we feel confident in using the BA02 and WA01 simulations as the control cases for the sensitivity investigations presented here. For the purposes of this study, we consider the sensitivity to two factors: i horizontal grid resolution; ii nudging of the model solution to observations and the role of atmospheric initialization.

The U. In addition, RAMS modeling is relied on to aid in planning of future campaigns designed to investigate land—atmosphere interactions at the mesoscale e.

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Finally, any successful parameterization scheme for mesoscale circulations, fluxes, clouds, and precipitation see above will necessarily require guidance from observations collected in diverse climatological regimes, and comparisons between results of simulations performed for these different regions is an important part of this parameterization development process. In the present work we focus on a preliminary comparison between Amazonia and the continental U. Section 3 presents the results of these experiments, and Section 4 provides a summary of the results and the conclusions.

The basic simulation configurations for BA02 and WA01 are described in detail in those papers, and we summarize the relevant information here, as well as point out where we introduced differences for the purposes of the sensitivity analysis. We present results from a total of 58 simulations, listed in Table 1.

Each simulation is constructed using three nested grids. BA02 focused on a heterogeneous, partially deforested portion of the state of Rondonia in the Amazon forest region of northwestern Brazil. Grid3 is run with these different spacings to investigate the sensitivity of the results to horizontal resolution. The pronounced differences in typical surface fluxes observed at the forest and pasture sites, coupled with the strong mesoscale heterogeneity in land use, provides the driving force behind the mesoscale atmospheric circulations.

In addition, the simulations were nudged at the lateral boundaries of Grid1 at each timestep toward the reanalyses, which were updated every six hours. Since the sensitivity of the simulation results to variations in the strength of nudging at the lateral and top boundaries, as well as throughout the domain as a whole, is one of the factors explored here, we provide some description of the specific nudging procedures used in RAMS. We acknowledge, though, that the initial presence of meteorological features smaller than 2.

RAMS provides the ability to nudge three portions of the simulation domain: the lateral boundary region, the top boundary region, and the model interior.

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Nudging at the top boundary functions in a manner similar to a Rayleigh friction absorbing layer used to damp vertically propagating gravity waves and reduce reflection from the model top; [e. Both of these forms of nudging affect only the model boundaries e. All of these timescales are in the range of values typically used in mesoscale simulations. Other configuration elements are identical to the simulations conducted for BA02; one exception is that a different less complex surface layer parameterization is used for some of the simulations in this paper, though the effect of this change on the results is minimal.

Doran et al. Central nudging is applied uniformly to all points in the model interior including all three grids. For all simulations, convection is not parameterized on Grid3 but is instead explicitly resolved. Each simulation spans twelve hours on the given day, from early morning to early evening. The first subsection focuses on horizontal resolution, while the second subsection addresses the impact of different choices for nudging and initialization.

We will show that grid resolution has a large, nonlinear influence on the intensity of these updrafts and the vertical heat and moisture transport they accomplish. For both 17 and 22 August, the main differences at coarser resolution are a broadening and spreading out of the mesoscale updraft regions over a much larger area and a weakening of the peak w values.

Both cases also show a slight southward shift of the main rising motion regions from the fine to the coarse simulations. This indicates that as the resolution is coarsened, not only do the simulated mesoscale circulations change in intensity and scale, but they also become less accurate and less realistic. Therefore, it can be concluded that changing resolution results in a relatively abrupt change in the character of the mesoscale circulations when a threshold grid spacing is passed.

Mesoscale Modeling of the Atmosphere

As will be discussed further see below , the specific resolution dependence of a given case is a consequence of the characteristic horizontal scale of the important atmospheric features present. For example, Lyons et al. Salvador et al. In particular, they showed that finer resolution resulted in more and stronger thermally induced vertical circulation cells. McQueen et al.